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Endnotes for Chapter Seven, Plans Up in Smoke:

Page 140:

1st paragraph: "less than 300km away"

1.    AWM553/5/12, Malaya Landing Operation (Jap); SCSC, The Outline of the Malayan Campaign; JM, Number 107, Malaya Invasion Naval Operations; PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East Operations Room narrative log [RAF Far East log], 6 December 1941; WO172/1, GHQ Far East War Diary, 6 December 1941; WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary Appendices, 6 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 6 December 1941; LHCMA, Brooke-Popham Papers, V/5/28, Layton to Admiralty, 6 December 1941.

1st paragraph: "certain they were about to do so"

2.    PRO, CAB65/24, War Cabinet Minutes, 5 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; Principal War Telegrams and Memoranda 1940-1943 [PT], vol. 1, COS to Brooke-Popham, 5 December 1941; Aldrich, 56, 86-88; Kirby, The Chain of Disaster, 128; Gilchrist, 56-58, 92-95.

2nd paragraph: "prepare it for war forthwith"

3.    PRO, CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; Middlebrook and Mahoney, 87-89; Barnett, Engage the Enemy More Closely, 406-07; Aldrich, 88; Gilchrist, 92-95.

Page 141:

1st paragraph: "having passed on the hot potato"

4.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 7 December 1941; WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary Appendices, 6-7 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 6-7 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; LHCMA, Brooke-Popham Papers, V/5/28, Brooke-Popham to COS, 7 December 1941.

Page 142:

1st paragraph: "to advance towards the Malayan border"

5.    JM, Number 54, Malaya Operations Record; Number 55, Southwest Area Air Operations Record Phase 1; Number 107, Malaya Invasion Naval Operations; SCSC, The Outline of the Malayan Campaign; AWM54/553/5/12, Malaya Landing Operation (Jap); Potter, 53-54; Tsuji, 79-90; Reynolds, ch. 4.

2nd paragraph: "give the defenders ample warning"

6.    SCSC, The Outline of the Malayan Campaign; JM, Number 107, Malayan Invasion Naval Operations; PRO, WO172/38, 9th Indian Division G Branch War Diary, 7 December 1941; WO172/106, 1/13th Frontier Force Rifles [1/13 Frontier Force] War Diary, 8 December 1941.

2nd paragraph: "No. 1 Squadron RAAF were in the air"

7.    PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary Appendices, 8 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/38, 9th Indian Division G Branch War Diary, Appendix 3, 8 December 1941; AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8 December 1941; H.L. Wrigglesworth, The Japanese Invasion of Kelantan in 1941, Kota Bharu, 1991, 13-18.

3rd paragraph: "‘hell of a scrap but anticipate recapture’"

8.    SCSC, The Outline of the Malayan Campaign; JM, Number 54, Malaya Operations Record; Number 107, Malaya Invasion Naval Operations; PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary Appendices, 8 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8 December 1941, reported as late as 1155hrs a "pocket of enemy resistance ... estimated two coys ... being dealt with ..."; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix 0, 8 December 1941; WO172/38, 9th Indian Division G Branch War Diary Appendix 3, 8 December 1941, log of situation reports from 8th Indian Brigade, notes at 0215hrs the brigade appreciating the landings as "probably a mistake or a feint," but at 0345hrs "heavy fighting Badang to Sabak"; WO172/106, 1/13 Frontier Force War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/111, 1st Hyderabad Infantry [1st Hyderabads] War Diary, 8 December 1941; AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8 December 1941; IWM, Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Notes on the campaign in Malaya [Wild notes], n/d [spring 1942]; Wrigglesworth, 18-26, 39-50.

Page 143:

1st paragraph: "to be platoon-sized pinpricks"

9.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign, recorded only three 20 man counterattacks by defenders who "lacked a spirit of assault"; JM, Number 55, Southwest Area Air Operations Phase 1; PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix BB, 8 December 1941; WO172/38, 9th Indian Division G Branch War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/109, 1st Mysore Infantry [1st Mysore] War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/111, 1st Hyderabad War Diary, 8 December 1941; AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8 December 1941; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; AIR23/8459, History of No. 34 Squadron 1941-42;Wrigglesworth, 54-59.

1st paragraph: "when they tried to stop the retreat"

10.    PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/109, 1st Mysore War Diary, 8 December 1941, records being ordered by "brigade" to implement denial at Machang at 1600hrs and then evacaute at 2100hrs; WO172/111, 1st Hyderabad War Diary, 8 December 1941, describes an intense fight broken off only when ammunition ran out followed by a retreat led by the adjutant, but "Before this withdrawal we lost the c.o. and it is not known what happened to him." Two days later 111 casualties are recorded, including the adjutant. The murder of the two officers was never officially confirmed. An inquiry whitewashed the evacution, which became a stampede when junior officers lost their nerve. AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8 December 1941; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; IWM, Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Wild notes; SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; JM, Number 54, Malaya Operations Record; Wrigglesworth, 59-64.

1st paragraph: "conceding the coast and bases to the enemy"

11.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; JM, Number 107, Malayan Invasion Naval Operations; PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 9 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix 9 December 1941, Heath phone call to Percival 1015-1040hrs; WO172/38, 9th Indian Division G Branch War Diary, 8-9 December 1941; WO172/106, 1/13 Frontier Force War Diary, 9 December 1941; WO172/111, 1st Hyderabad War Diary, 9 December 1941; AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 9 December 1941; IWM, Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Wild notes; Heath Papers, LMH4, notes on the Malayan campaign; Wrigglesworth, 65-67, 73-77.

Page 144:

1st paragraph: "should have been its prime target, at Singora"

12.    PRO, AIR23/1870, Employment of Aircraft Malaya, 9 December 1941; A. Warren, Singapore 1942: Britain’s Greatest Defeat, Sydney, 2002, 59-64, for a clear narrative; Probert, 41-42; Allen, 118. Marder, 449, notes that as it was the air attacks delayed the Japanese third wave for many hours. The operations log, PRO, AIR23/3577, and Percival, Despatch, confirm Percival and Pulford agreed to concentrate air attacks at Kota Bharu; Frei, 44; Wrigglesworth, 69-72.

2nd paragraph: "warning provided by the radar network"

13.    JM, Number 55, Southwest Area Air Operations Phase 1; Number 107, Malayan Invasion Naval Operations; SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 7-11 December 1941; WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8 December 1941; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; Probert, 35, 42-43.

Page 145:

1st indented quote: "the six aircraft that could fly"

14.    JM, Number 55, Southwest Area Air Operations, Phase 1; SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8-10 December 1941; AIR23/8459, History of No. 34 Squadron; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8-10 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix CC, 8 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch.

[Chapter seven continued ...]

1st paragraph: "an attack by more than ten bombers"

15.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8-11 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8-10 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix O, 8 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; Probert, 41-43.

2nd paragraph: "‘get away with all you can to Butterworth’"

16.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8-10 December 1941, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary and WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8-9 December 1941, indicate that from early morning 8 December the high command knew the Japanese were unloading at Singora.

2nd paragraph: "gallantry alone could not even up such bad odds"

17.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 9 December 1941; Probert, 44-45.

Page 146:

1st paragraph: "gifts to the enemy when evacuated in haste"

18.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 9-11 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 9-11 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; Probert, 48-49; CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 4; Shores et al, 101-03.

1st paragraph: "loading aircraft with ammunition and fuel"

19.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8-9 December 1941; Probert, 43-45, argues "... after the first day the RAF virtually ceased to exist as a means of defence." The case of treason involved Capt. Patrick S.V. Heenan, an Indian Army officer posted to Alor Star as an Air Liaison Officer from June 1941. Heenan apparently worked for the Japanese to pay off a grudge he carried on personal grounds against the British Empire and society. Caught in the act of sending information by radio, he was arrested and sent to Singapore, according to surviving official records. There the paper trail ends, but he was reputedly summarily executed shortly before Singapore surrendered. Heenan can not have done enough damage to be decisive in any way, but his actions probably cost No. 62 Squadron at Alor Star some men and aircraft and added to Japanese information about Norgroup. The only full study is P. Elphick and M. Smith, Odd Man Out: The Story of the Singapore Traitor, U.K., 1993, which exposed the treason but exaggerated its impact. The paper trail in archival records is PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix Z.1, 10 December 1941; WO172/33, III Indian Corps War Diary, 12, 19, 23-24 December 1941;CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 4; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; IWM, Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Wild notes.

1st paragraph: "and future reinforcement convoys"

20.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 10-12 December 1941; AIR23/1870, Note on Air Operations, 9 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 10-12 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix, Heath phone call to Percival, 1015hrs 9 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; Percival, Despatch.

2nd paragraph: "submarines rearranged their patrol lines to keep watch"

21.    PRO, ADM199/1472B, Layton Despatch; Middlebrook and Mahoney, 74-78, 87-99; JM, Number 107, Malaya Invasion Naval Operations; Number 102, Submarine Operations, December 1941-April 1942.

1st paragraph: "in the early morning hours of 10 December"

22.    PRO, CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; ADM199/1472B, Layton Despatch; Churchill, The Grand Alliance, 615-17; Middlebrook and Mahoney, 100-11; Montgomery, ch. 1; Marder, 500-01.

Page 148:

1st paragraph: "changed course and headed back towards Singapore"

23.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 8-9 December 1941; AIR23/1870, Employment of Aircraft, Malaya, and Appreciation on How to Produce the Maximum Protection for the Fleet during 10/12/41, 9 December 1941; CAB106/40, Brooke-Popham Despatch; CAB106/86, Maltby Despatch; Middlebrook and Mahoney, 106-45; Marder, 387-88; Barnett, Engage the Enemy More Closely, 408-13.

2nd paragraph: "to intercept the apparent invasion"

24.    PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 9-10 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 9-10 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendices, 9-10 December 1941; WO172/38, 9th Indian Division G Branch War Diary, 9-10 December 1941; WO172/124, 22nd Indian Brigade War Diary, 9-10 December 1941; D. Russell-Roberts, Spotlight on Singapore, London, 1965, 29; Warren, 70-71. The Japanese have no record of being anywhere near Kuantan that night, but some days later small boats with bits and pieces of equipment were found not far away. Warren’s judgement that the troops shot up some fishermen is reasonable.

Page 149:

1st paragraph: "moved in to attack just after 1100hrs"

25.    JM, Number 107, Malaya Invasion Naval Operations; Number 102, Submarine Operations, December 1941-April 1942; WO172/124, 22nd Indian Brigade War Diary, 10 December 1941, records the clear view the troops had of the force, which did not depart until 1045hrs; Middlebrook and Mahoney, 139-43; Barnett, Engage the Enemy More Closely, 411-13; Marder, 438; Warren, 67-68, 72.

2nd paragraph: "the Japanese won total control of the South China Sea"

26.    PRO, AIR23/3577, RAF Far East log, 10 December 1941; WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 10 December 1941; JM, Number 107, Malaya Invasion Naval Operations; AWM54/553/5/12, Malaya Landing Operation (Jap), interrogation of Capt. Sonokawa Kameo, IJN, November 1945, is the most detailed account of the battle by a Japanese participant; Middlebrook and Mahoney, chs. 8-13; Barnett, Engage the Enemy More Closely, 414-21; Marder, 433-39. HMS Tenedos, running low on fuel, turned back the night before.

3rd paragraph: "‘we were everywhere weak and naked’"

27.    Churchill, The Grand Alliance, 620.

Page 150:

Indented quote: "vanished as completely as our proud ships"

28.    PRO, ADM199/1472B, Layton Despatch; Percival, Despatch; Montgomery, 88-89; Shennan, 231; Warren, 77-78; A.H.C. Ward et al (eds.), The Memoirs of Tan Kah Kee, Singapore, 1994, 152; G. Rocker, Escaped Singapore ... Heading Homewards, Singapore, 1990, 17.

2nd paragraph: "abandon the defenders of Singapore to their fate"

29.    PRO, ADM199/1472B; Kimball, Churchill-Roosevelt correspondence, vol. 1, 7-10 December 1941, indicates clearly that the foremost matter on the Prime Minister’s mind was to arrange a meeting in Washington; Churchill, The Grand Alliance, 615-16, acknowledges he and the COS were discussing a very different course of action for Phillips while he was already at sea; Middlebrook and Mahoney, ch. 15, Marder, 479-501, and Gilchrist, 136-38, make useful comments.

Page 151:

1st paragraph: "‘rolling stock held for that could be released"

30.    PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 7-8 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix CC, 8 December 1941; Heath to Percival telephone call, 1015hrs 9 December 1941; WO172/33, III Indian Corps War Diary, 8 December 1941; IWM, Percival Papers, P.23, F.48, Percival comments on drafts of official history, n/d; Percival, Despatch; Percival, The War in Malaya, 112.

2nd paragraph: "so the disruption was its own fault"

31.    IWM, Percival Papers, P.23, F.48, Percival comments on drafts of official history, n/d; Percival to Blood, 27 November 1950; Percival, Despatch.

Indented quote: "ready for dawn 8/12 if ordered"

32.    PRO, WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 6-7 December 1941.

Page 152:

1st paragraph: "These were clear directions to prepare to advance"

33.    PRO, WO172/33, III Indian Corps War Diary, 29 November, 7-8 December 1941.

Indented quote: "occupy our Defence Positions on the Jitra Line"

34.    PRO, CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 3; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 6, 8 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 7-8 December 1941.

Page 153:

2nd paragraph: "after the British knew of it for certain"

35.    PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/123, 3/16 Punjabi War Diary, 8 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 8; IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign; Percival, Despatch.

Page 154:

1st paragraph: "leaving the Japanese on The Ledge"

36.    PRO, WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 9 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix H 3, 11 December 1941; WO172/123, 3/16 Punjabi War Diary, 15 November, 8-10 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 8; IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign; Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Wild notes; Percival, Despatch.

2nd paragraph: "relieved by 12th Indian Brigade"

37.    PRO, WO172/15, GHQ Far East War Diary, 11 December 1941; WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendices, N 3, 1900hrs 11 December, Z 3, A 4, C 4, D 4, 12 December, Q 4, C 5, 13 December 1941; WO172/123, 3/16 Punjabi War Diary, 11-14 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, chs. 8-9; IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign; Percival, Despatch; Warren, 79-80.

3rd paragraph: "south from Patani along difficult wet roads"

38.    IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign.

Page 155:

1st paragraph: "‘in the Second Sikh War of 1848'"

39.    A. Swinson, Defeat in Malaya, London, 1969, 74.

2nd paragraph: "soaking hard-working troops"

40.    PRO, WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 8-10 December 1941; WO132/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 8-11 December 1941; CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 2, acknowledges higher command and division staff both mishandled the change of plans by not coping with the predictable impact on morale, troops griping at going "back to the effing mud hole"; McEwan, 26; G. Chippington, Singapore: The Inexcusable Betrayal, U.K, 1992, 21, 27-35, is a vivid account by an eyewitness infantry officer.

3rd paragraph: "the Japanese had tanks right up front"

41.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; Tsuji, 89-91; WO172/17, Malaya Command War Diary, 8 December 1941; CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 3; IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign; Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Wild notes; Percival, Despatch.

3rd paragraph: "a defensive position worked on for months"

42.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; Tsuji, 107-12; WO172/71, 17th Field Company Sappers and Miners War Diary, 8 December 1941; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 10 December 1941; CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 3; IWM, Wild Papers, 66/227/1, Wild notes; Percival, Despatch.

Page 156:

1st paragraph: "covered by the fire of nearby platoons"

43.    PRO, WO172/33, III Indian Corps War Diary, 9-10 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 8-10 December 1941; CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 2; Warren, 80-82.

2nd paragraph: "to get between and behind their positions"

44.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendices H 3, N 3, 11 December 1941; WO172/64, 22nd Mountain Regiment RA War Diary, 11 December 1941; WO172/71, 17th Field Company Sappers and Miners War Diary, 11-12 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 11 December 1941; WO172/116, 155th Field Regiment RA War Diary, 11 December 1941; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 11 December 1941; WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 8-11 December 1941; CAB106/53, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 4; IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign; SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; Tsuji, 112-19.

Page 157:

2nd paragraph: "He led his company into the attack at 0300hrs"

45.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; Tsuji, 119-20.

3rd paragraph: "counterattacks the defenders were able to mount began"

46.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; Tsuji, 120-24; PRO, WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 12 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 5.

Page 158:

1st paragraph: "Percival ordered Murray-Lyon to fight it out."

47.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix W 3, Reports to Percival and orders issued by him 0830-0935hrs; WO172/123, 3/16 Punjabi War Diary, 12 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 5; Percival, Despatch; Percival, The War in Malaya, 133.

2nd paragraph: "fighting off all who approached them"

48.    PRO, WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/120, 1st Leicesters War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/71, 17th Field Company Sappers and Miners War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/64, 22nd Mountain Regiment War Diary, 12 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 5.

2nd paragraph: "suffered on the Western Front"

49.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix Z 3, BGS III Corps to BGS 1240hrs 12 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 5; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/120, 1st Leicesters War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 12 December 1941.

Page 159:

1st paragraph: "The division simply was not ready to fight that way."

50.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix C 4, 12 December 1941; WO172/120, 1st Leicesters War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/116, 155th Field Regiment War Diary, 12 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 5; IWM, Heath Papers, LMH4, Notes on the Malayan Campaign.

2nd paragraph: "never confident about fighting it out there"

51.    PRO, WO172/64, 22nd Mountain Regiment War Diary, 10 December 1941; WO172/43, 88th Field Regiment War Diary, 11 December 1941, notes their commanding officer was ordered that evening to join officers from both 6th and 28th Indian Brigades to reconnoiter the Gurun area.

2nd paragraph: "out of the decisive fight"

52.    SCSC, Outline of the Malayan Campaign; Tsuji, 119-24; PRO, WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/120, 1st Leicesters War Diary, 12 December 1941.

2nd paragraph: "Percival agreed at 2300hrs and the move began."

53.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendices G 4, K 4, 12 December 1941; WO172/64, 22nd Mountain Regiment War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/116, 155th Field Regiment War Diary, 12 December 1941; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 12 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 5.

Page 160:

1st paragraph: "division commander and his staff shot the other two"

54.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendices Q 4 and C 5, 13 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 12-13 December 1941; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 12-13 December 1941; WO172/120, 1st Leicesters War Diary, 12-13 December 1941; WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 12-13 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, chs. 5-6.

1st paragraph: "great quantities of ammunition and supplies"

55.    PRO, WO172/15 GHQ Far East War Diary, 13 December 1941; WO172/100, 2nd East Surreys War Diary, 13 December 1941; WO172/117, 15th Indian Brigade War Diary, 13-14 December 1941; WO172/120, 1st Leicesters War Diary, 13 December 1941; WO172/121, 2/9 Jats War Diary, 13-14 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 6.

2nd paragraph: "trained in this patently obvious tactic"

56.    PRO, CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 6; Frei, chs. 5-6.

2nd paragraph: "‘Wal, I guess I jes skeers em and keeps em skeered’"

57.    PRO, WO172/18, Malaya Command War Diary Appendix N 3, 11 December 1941; CAB106/54, 11th Indian Division history, ch. 6; Chippington, 62. Warren, chs. 6-7, is the clearest narrative of the battle.







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