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Bo-ni is traditionally identified with the polity of Brunei. However, while the Brunei historical traditions certainly contain references to links with China (see, for instance Low 1880), there has been no uncontestable evidence presented which demonstrates that the "Bo-ni" in the MSL refers to the polity of Brunei. The main link, between the Brunei historiographical accounts and the MSL references is the probable equivalance of the Bo-ni ruler "Xia-wang" (= Awang) noted in MSL references from 1408-26 with Awang Alak ber Tabar who, according to a Brunei account, ruled Brunei prior to the introduction of Islam (Low 1880; 6). The two accounts fit together well phonetically and chronologically. See also D.E. Brown (1970) and Wang Gungwu (1968 and 1970). For information on further Chinese sources relating to Bo-ni, see Chen, Xie and Lu (1986; 574-75, 919-20).

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