Cheng-hua: Year 11, Month 8, Day 25

24 Sep 1475

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Li Hao, the king of the country of Annam, memorialized:

"Previously, as Pan-luo Cha-quan, the king of the country of Champa, had invaded the Hua Subprefecture Route, he was assassinated by his younger brother Pan-luo Cha-yue, who then established himself as ruler and requested enfeoffment. However, Pan-luo Cha-yue was them killed by his son Cha-zhi-tai-lai. After this, the country fell into great chaos and there was much killing on all sides. Their soldiers have not seen a day of peace. This was not a crime committed by my country. Now, I am respecting and observing the Imperial instructions, am resting my troops and pursuing good relations with neighbouring states. The 740-plus men and women taken have all been sent back to that country."

The memorial was sent to the Ministry of War which advised:

"Hao's memorial omitted mention of his attack and occupation of Champa and his account is different from that of the Supervising Secretary of the Right Chen Jun and so on. The truth or otherwise of his account is difficult to assess."

As the attendant ministers Li Hong-yu and others were returning [to Annam], the Emperor sent Imperial instructions to Hao. The instructions read:

"In the past, Pan-luo Cha-yue of Champa memorialized that you had captured their king Pan-luo Cha-quan and that Champa was without a ruler. He thus requested that he be enfeoffed. In manifesting Heaven and Earth's love for all living things, I granted this request and sent and envoy to go to enfeoff him. When the envoy returned, he memorialized claims that Champa's territory had been occupied by your country and that you had instituted your own administrative divisions (州邑). I was doubtful and did not believe this. Now I have received your memorial stating that Champa raised troops, engendered enmity and attacked neighbouring states and that their own deaths and the destruction of their country are all the result of their own actions. Although the events are not clearly known, this does seem possible. While your words, king, are earnest and sincere and are certainly not disguising evil conduct, Champa has a long tradition as a country. In the past, was it the case that Annam had no power to annex Champa? The history books do not record such an event. The lesson is obvious. Now, if the country is suddenly brought to an end, not only will this go against the Imperial will, but I am afraid that the various fan across the seas will be worried and fearful and will all engage in wrangling. Will this be of benefit to your country, king? When these orders arrive, you, king, shall further correct yourself, send back the king's family members, return their people and restore their land, so that the line of succession does not die out. Your righteousness, king, in restoring a broken line of succession, and your sincerity in respecting Heaven and serving the superior will result in benefit for both sides. You, king, should exert yourself in this!"

Xian-zong: juan 144.3b-4a

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 45, page 2660/61

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/cheng-hua/year-11-month-8-day-25, accessed January 22, 2019