Noted in the MSL as a “pacification Superintendency” (宣慰司) subordinate to Yun-nan. It is noted decreasingly frequently over the 16th and 17th centuries. Apparently there were initially two polities -- Ba-bai and Da-dian -- but during the course of the Ming dynasty, they were integrated. By seemingly universal consensus, Ba-bai and Ba-bai/Da-dian refer to the Tai polity/ies of Lanna. The Ming Shi records the territory of Ba-bai extending "east to Che-li, south to Bo-le, west to Da Gu-la, bordering Ava-Burma, and north to Meng-gen" (Gong Yin 1985; 203). MSL references can be compared with accounts of Lanna contained in Hoshino (1986), Jayawickrama (1978), Mangrai (1981), Notton (1932) and Prasoet and Wyatt (1966). For information on further Chinese sources relating to this polity, see Chen, Xie and Lu (1986; 118, 978), Dao Yong-ming (1989; 418-27), Fang Guo-yu (1987; 1019-1022), and Gong Yin (1985; 202-203 and 1992; 418-27).
Ba-bai/Da-dian Pacification Superintendency