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Cheng-hua: Year 19, Month 9, Day 7

8 Oct 1483

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Nang Han-nong of Meng-mi, under the Mu-bang Pacification Superintendency, memorialized that they had been repeatedly harassed by Mu-bang and requested that a separate pacification office be established. The memorial was sent down for deliberation. The Minister of War Zhang Peng and others advised: "The Eunuch Director Tan Ping and the Censor-in-Chief Cheng Zong already have experience in soothing and instructing the various yi. Orders should be issued requiring these two persons to go to Jin-chi and then to personally summon Nang Han-nong and her son, as well as the Mu-bang Pacification Superintendent and instruct them, saying: `You two have been engaged in enmity year after year. The defence officials requested that troops be sent to destroy you. However, the Court, fearing that the arrival of the Court's troops would bring harm to the innocent, is again leniently sending senior ministers to soothe and instruct you, so that both sides will be able to live in peace'. If the various yi listen to the orders, then Meng-mi should remain under Mu-bang. If the conditions do not allow re-uniting, a separate pacification office should be established. Otherwise, if the officials have other good plans, they should be instructed to advise". This was Imperially approved. Thus, Imperial orders were sent to Ping and Zong. The orders read: "Nang Han-nong and so on have memorialized, claiming that for repeated years they have been respectful and loyal, but have been constantly subject to Mu-bang's attacks and killing. They want a separate office to be established so that they are not subject to Mu-bang's control. When I previously sent you orders saying if they had correct hearts and would listen to soothing, that you should then deliberate on arrangements, this is what I was speaking about. But until now there have not emerged any firm arrangements. Originally, they would not have dared to not obey our pacification instructions. However, evil persons have intervened. Recently, [Nang Han-nong etc.] have again come to offer tribute and the situation is now clear. When these orders arrive, you are to deliberate on the matter together with the Regional Commander and concurrently Qian-guo Duke Mu Cong, the Grand Coordinator and Censor-in-Chief Wu Cheng, as well as the regional inspector and officials of the three offices, and make appropriate plans. You are to wait until the miasma dies down and then you, Ping, and you, Zong, are both to go to Jin-chi and, together with the Eunuch Director Wang Ju, are to superintend the officials originally sent by the three offices and the Usher Su Quan, the interpreters and so on, who had previously gone there to instruct them. You are then to proceed to Teng-chong or Long-chuan, base yourselves where appropriate and then summon Nang Han-nong and her son, to meet face-to-face with Han Wa-fa and others of Mu-bang. You are then to make great efforts to soothe and instruct them, advising them that their previous crimes are all forgotten and will not be investigated, and requiring them to withdraw from the villages and stockades they have occupied and return them to the appropriate party to control. Also, you must promulgate instructions to Gan-yai, Nan Dian, Long-chuan, Meng-yang and such places, noting that all native officials who have long been quarrelling with Nang Han-nong are to forget their quarrels and settle their differences. They are not permitted to engage in further wrangling. You are to investigate all strategic elements of the situation and memorialize on what arrangements should be made. Advise what grace needs to be conferred and what designations need to be assigned, whether Meng-mi should remain subordinate to Mu-bang or whether there is a need to establish another office to administer the area. In assessing these matters, you must be extremely fair and the proposals should be memorialized so that arrangements can be made. In your soothing and instruction, if the successive Imperial orders do not cover particular matters, you are permitted to act on your own discretion. If, by chance, the yi do not accept soothing and you have other good proposals, you are to memorialize on your plans. You are senior ministers from within and outside the Court and you have been entrusted with a major external task. You must coordinate your ideas and actions. If either of you harbours different ideas and this results in calamity, the blame will be affixed. Also, if evil persons should continue plots to obstruct the undertaking, you must memorialize the facts. Major crimes will not be pardoned." Formerly, Nang Han-nong had usurped and occupied Meng-mi, and intimidated neighbouring territories. The native officials were resentful and wanted to attack her. However, she secretly sent people along a by-path to Yun-nan and thence to the capital where they presented precious stones and gold and memorialized a request that an office be established directly subordinate to the provincial administration commission. The Ministry of War re-submitted the memorial and it was sent to the Grand Secretaries for deliberation. The Grand Secretary Wan An wanted to permit this, but Liu Xu and Liu Ji did not agree, saying: "Meng-mi was an area under Mu-bang's control. Now Nang Han-nong has rebelled and requested orders from the Court. If this request is granted, when the native-official pacification superintendencies hear of it, who among them will not be disaffected? This was the meaning of the Zhou Emperor's order to the three states of Jin. It cannot be allowed." [Wan] An said: "It is correct not to approve it. However, it is heard that some persons want to raise troops and send a large expedition to attack them, in order to gain rewards from the action. We must take warning from the events in Lu-chuan in the past [and not send an army]." But Xu and so on countered: "Why would it ever be necessary to send an expedition? If Nang Han-nong rebels, it is only necessary to order the Yun-nan regional officials to provide stricter border defence and order the neighboring pacification superintendencies of Gan-yai and Meng-yang to join forces and capture her. We can use yi to attack yi. They are contemptible little rogues. What will they be able to do?" The matter was subsequently shelved. Ji thereafter left office to carry out mourning rites for a parent. At the request of the Yun-nan regional officials, the Court called up Cheng Zong to go and soothe and instruct Meng-mi and Mu-bang. The Usher Su Quan, in receipt of instructions received from [Wan] An, transmitted them to Zong. Nang Han-nong then again memorialized, and the order [to establish the Meng-mi office] was issued. There were those who expressed the view that this was not proper.

Xian-zong: juan 244.3a-4a

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 48, page 4131/33

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/cheng-hua/year-19-month-9-day-7, accessed December 06, 2019