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Hong-wu: Year 2, Month 6, Day 20

23 Jul 1369

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The Junior Grand Master of the Palace Tong Shi-min, (Alt: Zhou Shi-min), the Principal Grand Masters Duan Ti and Li An-shi and others sent by Chen Ri-kui, the king of the country of Annam, came to Court and offered tribute of local products. In accordance with the king's request, he was enfeoffed with a title and an Imperial proclamation was issued.

Zhang Yi-ning, an academician reader-in-waiting in the Han-lin Academy and Niu Liang, a government recorder, were sent as envoys to the country to enfeoff Ri-kui as the king of the country of Annam and to confer on him a gold-plated silver seal decorated with the form of a camel. The proclamation read:

"A despatch to you Chen Ri-kui, king of Annam. In the past, your forefathers guarded the borders in the South. The duties passed from generation to generation, and they declared Annam a feudatory (稱藩) of China. They were able to be respectful and fulfil the duties of ministers and they long retained the fief for successive generations. With the assistance of the spirits of Heaven and Earth, I have been able to bring peace to China. Recently, I sent an urgent message to inform you of this, with the hope that all the territory was at peace. You have been able to send a memorial declaring yourself a subject and a special envoy to offer congratulations. With the counsel of your ancestors, you have kept the people of your distant land contented and you care for and assist them. This is truly worthy of praise and esteem. Thus, I am sending envoys to deliver to you a seal and enfeoff you as the king of Annam. Verily, in looking on all equally, I wish to follow the Imperial kindness of the wise Emperors. In enfeoffing above the five levels of feudal lords, I have taken on the fine task of previous generations. You should become increasingly virtuous and excellent in your ways and long remain a supporting feudatory."

A copy of the calendar Da Tong Li and 40 bolts of patterned fine silks and silk gauzes interwoven with gold thread were conferred upon Ri-kui. Tong Shi-min (Alt: Zhou Shi-min), Duan Ti, Li An-shi and Ruan Fa were each given one bolt of patterned fine silk, one bolt of brocaded gauze and two bolts of light gauze. Their deputy Ruan Xun and the 23 attendants were all given appropriate presents. Yi-ning and the others reached the border of Annam in the 10th month (Oct/Nov 1369), but Ri-kui had already died during the Summer in the fifth month. His nephew Ri-jian, who had inherited the throne, sent the minister Ruan Ru-liang to greet them. He requested the proclamation and seal but Yi-ning and the others did not comply. Ri-jian then sent Du Shun-qin and others to request orders from the Court. Yi-ning remained in Annam awaiting orders.

Tai-zu: juan 43.3a-b

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 2, page 0847/48

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/hong-wu/year-2-month-6-day-20, accessed March 27, 2019