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Hong-wu: Year 27, Month 4, Day 11

11 May 1394

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The rituals for the feudatory countries when coming to Court and offering tribute were revised. At this time, of the yi in the four directions who had come to Court and offered tribute, in the East there were Korea and Japan, and in the South there were Siam, Ryukyu, Champa, Cambodia, Annam, Java, Xi-yang, Suo-li, San-fo-qi, Bo-ni, Bai-hua, Lan-bang, Pahang, Dan-ba and Xu-wen-da-na, a total of 17 countries. Of the yi in the South-west... those under Yun-nan included the military and civilian prefecture of Yao-an, the eight prefectures of Yuan-jiang, Li-jiang, Jing-dong, Chu-xiong, He-qing, Xun Dian, Da-li and Lin-an, the three pacification superintendencies of Ping-mian, Che-li and Ba-bai, the two subprefectures of Yao-zhou and Deng-zhou, the three native offices of Hai-dong, Bin-ju and Lesser Yun-nan, and the two counties of Guang-tong and Xi-e ... The Emperor felt that the former ceremonies were troublesome and thus ordered that they be revised. Whenever the kings of the feudatory countries came to Court, they were firstly to be entertained in the Interpreter's Institute by an official of the Ministry of Rites. The following day, they were to wear their country's costume or, if Court clothes had been conferred upon them, they were to wear the Court clothes and have an audience in the Feng-tian Hall. After bowing eight times, they would go to the Wen-hua Hall to have an audience with the Heir Apparent. Here they would bow four times and, on meeting the Imperial princes, they would repeat this. The Imperial princes would stand to receive them and would bow twice in response. The attendant officials would carry out these rituals after the feudatory king had completed them. At all banquets, the feudatory kings would be treated as being next to marquis and earls in precedence. Envoys of these feudatory countries and native officials, when coming to Court and offering tribute would follow the usual ceremonies for audiences.

Tai-zu: juan 232.5b-6b

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 8, page 3394/95

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/hong-wu/year-27-month-4-day-11, accessed November 15, 2019