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Hong-wu: Year 3, Month 4, Day 15

10 May 1370

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The Emperor, wearing clothes of mourning, gave an audience to Shun-qin and others at Xi-hua Gate. He sent the Han-lin Compiler Wang Lian to offer sacrifices for the deceased and gave a funeral contribution of 50 liang of silver and 50 bolts of thin silk. The text presented read as follows: "I rose from the ranks of the common people and, as China was greatly disordered, I raised troops and eliminated the calamity and disorder. I then rested the troops, brought peace to the people and unified the Chinese. In the first years of my reign, I sent envoys to report this to the chieftains and leaders of the yi in the four directions, so that they would know that China was at peace. You, Ri-kui, hearing that the proclamation had arrived, personally led your attendant ministers in receiving our envoy with courtesy. Your sincere sentiments are pleasing and you are like a long-time minister. Before the other states came, you were first to send an envoy to the Court. I looked to Heaven and clapped my hands, calling for prosperity for the people of Annam. I ordered the Secretariat and the Ministry of Rites to cast a seal in ancient style and sent Zhang Yi-ning, an academician reader-in-waiting in the Han-lin Academy, to deliver it to your country. This was to demonstrate your virtue and morality and to encourage you to continued loyalty. On the 14th day of the fourth month of this year (9 May 1370), the Secretariat memorialized the throne that your envoy Du Shun-qin and others had arrived. When your envoy stated that you had passed away I involuntarily stamped my feet and cried out: "Why has the virtuous lord of the South-west feudatory departed so soon?" Thus, I have sent an envoy to offer sacrifices for you. Ri-kui, alive you had your post and, now gone, you are no doubt still aware and are assisting your state unseen. May you long concern yourself with those who succeed you." Further, Lin Tang-chen, a secretary in the Ministry of Personnel, was sent with orders enfeoffing Ri-jian as king of Annam. The proclamation stated: "I have been appointed to the legitimate succession and have pacified all under Heaven. I have favoured you Annam, as you have long known to respect and look up to China. Last year, the king Chen Ri-kui presented a memorial, declaring himself my subject. I sent an envoy to present my proclamation and a seal, continuing his enfeoffment as the king of Annam. However, before the envoy reached the border, Ri-kui died. Now his heir, Ri-jian, is capable of continuing the aspirations of his predecessors and his special envoy has requested our command. On examining statutes and ritual, it is found appropriate that he inherit the throne. Thus, I am ordering that you, Ri-jian, inherit the fief as the king of the country of Annam, and I am presenting you with a gold seal." In addition, 40 bolts of patterned fine silks and silk gauzes interwoven with gold thread were conferred upon him. Rewards of silks and fine silks, as appropriate, were conferred upon Shun-qin and his subordinates, a total of 14 persons. There was a further proclamation: "In the Han dynasty (206 B.C.-221 A.D), the Wave-pacifying General Ma Yuan punished Jiao-zhi and erected the bronze pillar in order to show that the man and the yi had been subdued. His achievements were very great. Order Lian to offer sacrifices to him." When Lian reached Wu-man-tan in Heng-zhou, he saw that the temple had collapsed and was in ruins. He ordered the people of the subprefecture to repair it and afterwards offered sacrifices there.

Tai-zu: juan 51.8b-9a

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 3, page 1006/07

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/hong-wu/year-3-month-4-day-15, accessed October 23, 2019