Tian-qi: Year 3, Month 5, Day 6
3 Jun 1623
Peng Kun-hua, a censor of the Zhe-jiang Circuit, memorialized: "Of China's superior technologies, that which is supreme is the cannon (火砲). Now, the `bay yi' have come from the distance and they have persons skilled in the use of firearms (點放之人). The responsible officials should be Imperially ordered to swiftly manufacture cannons in accordance with the model, ensure that men are well-trained in advance, and deploy the cannons beyond the passes, so that we are prepared and there will be no calamities..." An Imperial order was issued, noting: "In respect of the various border defence matters, the inner and outer officers are to make overall arrangements...."
Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 128, page 1749/51