Tian-qi: Year 6, Month 11, Day 29
16 Jan 1627
Previously, in Fu-jian, following the disorder engaged in by the "red yi", evil persons began to act rebelliously everywhere. They gathered together followers and formed gangs, took on the titles of kings and declared dynasties. Yang Liu, Cai San and Zhong Liu each had thousands of followers on the seas. Yang Liu was particularly cruel and crafty. The Fu-jian Grand Coordinator Zhu Qin-xiang ordered the Regional Commander Yi Zi-gao to collect his forces and eliminate them. The bandits thus gradually moved into Guang-dong. The Supreme Commander Shang Zhou-zuo despatched a large naval force against them. The bandits were thereby attacked from north and south and were in dire straits. Thus, Cai San fled to Japan, while Zhong Liu was threatened by Yang Liu and he took refuge in the Eastern fan. Yang Liu then led his 3,000-plus men and 72 large and small ships to the Regional Commander Yu Zi-gao and requested permission to surrender. The Commandant Wang Ying-xuan was then sent to promulgate instructions and, at once, 2,000 persons were willing to return to farming, while Yang Liu was willing to eliminate bandits to demonstrate his loyalty. The Grand Coordinator Zhu Qin-xiang advised.....
Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 132, page 3795/96