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Wan-li: Year 38, Month 7, Day 29

16 Sep 1610

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The Yun-nan Regional Inspector Deng Mei, together with the Grand Coordinator Zhou Jia-mo submitted an impeachment against Zhou Hui, the acting assistant regional commander of Yong-chang/Teng-chong and the Guard Commanders Chen Yu-bi and Ma Ting-fu, all under the regional military commission, and noted that they should be removed from their posts and subject to investigation. Previously, as the defence commanders had been extorting from him, Duo An-min of Long-chuan rebelled and gave his allegiance to Ava-Burma. However, the Ava chieftain of Ava-Burma heeded our instructions and sent An-min back. An-min then long occupied Man-wan where he became increasingly arrogant and tyrannical. Zhou Hui was constantly fearful and he believed the evil person Li Chao-xuan (Alt: Ji Chao-xuan) when he falsely claimed that he would assist China(內助). Thus, recklessly, Hui despatched 7,000 yi troops and 3,000 government troops and sent the two commanders Yu-bi and Ting-fu to advance them. They then proceeded and set up camp 100 li outside Long-chuan. At that time, the Ava-Burmese chieftain had already returned Hua-xian (Alt: Cui-xian) and the troops who had been assisting in defence were withdrawn. The government troops captured two stockades (柵) over two days. Our troops occupied the high ground, while the enemy was below them. However, as Zhou Hui was not among the forces, there was no one to order the troops to halt or advance. Then Man-mo sent troops to assist the rebels, whereupon the commanders scattered. When Hui heard, he fled on successive nights to Hu-wan and then into Shan-mu. An-min took advantage of the victory to press north. Much property was thus destroyed and many people killed. It was for this reason that the grand coordinator and the regional inspector submitted the impeachment. At this time, the ministry re-submitted the memorial, noting: "Zhou Hui acted without authority and ruined matters. His crime certainly is difficult to pardon. The grand coordinator likewise cannot escape responsibility. In the three pacification commissions and the six zhao [= pacification superintendencies] they are nothing more than native chieftains who rely on each other and share each other's concerns. What we rely on to hold them down and awe them into submission is the majesty of the Court's orders. The classics on warfare say: `Once it is clear that a person is a bandit, he should be treated as an enemy and be brought to submission'. Although An-min is a rebellious chieftain who fled and then came back to allegiance, he does hold a seal and a warrant and has inherited a Han official title. If we instruct him but he does not listen and if we try to pacify him but without effect, his crimes will clearly have to be punished, and it will be requested that Heaven's punishment be carried out. The great authority for an expedition of punishment was put into the hands of a small man like the acting commander, who treated military matters as a game, and the government troops (Alt: native offices) did not make known the crimes and carry out punishment, but rather the troops were lightly allowed to kill and the elimination of An-min was considered a minor matter, with the result that all of the man chieftains felt themselves in peril. These were very ill-considered actions. However, now this chieftain has opposed our troops, and he must be punished. As to current plans, we should punish the Duo chieftain's crimes of rebellion against the country, giving allegiance to the yi, and refusing to submit to pacification. This should then be announced to the yi and natives. The native woman nee Han and the ruling family member Duo An-jing (Alt Duo An-qing) should be well treated and advised that they will definitely be allowed to take up posts, so as to recover the hearts of the people beyond the river. Further instructions should be sent to Ava, noting that it must never again accept An-min's allegiance as thereby it will bring upon itself the Heavenly Court's punishment. Subsequently, orders should be issued deploying Han and native government troops to occupy the important and strategic places, to engage in elimination as the situations require, and to ensure security. As to Huang Wen-bing of that circuit, the despatch of troops requires orders and it would have been difficult for him to have been completely ignorant of their deployment. He should be ordered to carry his crimes while continuing to handle matters. When the bandits have been eliminated or settled, achievements and crimes can be deliberated upon. The Grand Coordinator Zhou Jia-mo has the control of the region in his hands. Any transgressions by circuit commanders are also his transgressions. Many incidents in the South-West have sprung from this. It is requested that an Imperial order be issued laying responsibility on him and requiring that he make joint efforts with the circuit in punishing the bandits." An Imperial order was issued noting: "Zhou Hui and so on are to be sent to the regional inspecting censor for investigation, while Huang Wen-bing is to carry his crime and punish the bandits. Duo An-min has dared to act in a refractory and rebellious manner. The grand defender and grand coordinator are to urgently deliberate on plans and memorialize. They are to handle matters as they see fit in accordance with the situation and are to ensure security in their arrangements, and that results are achieved."

Shen-zong: juan 473.9b-10b

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 117, page 8946/48

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/wan-li/year-38-month-7-day-29, accessed September 23, 2019