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Wan-li: Year 39, Month 4, Day 3

14 May 1611

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The Minister of War Li Hua-long submitted proposals on remedial arrangements for Yun-nan: "The three pacification commissions of Long-chuan, Nan Dian and Gan-yai comprise interlinked peaks which form a screen for our areas of Teng-chong and Yong-chang. They are truly an important region in the South-West. The Pacification Commissioner Duo An-min turned his back on the Han and gave his allegiance to Ava-Burma, and although his crimes did not warrant death, Heaven rejected this evil-doer and in an instant he was eliminated. Duo An-jing is Duo An-min's younger brother. He was cared for and supported, and thus with great righteousness he broke links with his brother. Then, respecting the Court's orders, he led his tribes-people in punishing the bandits. His achievements are worthy of record and there is no doubt that he should be given the former land of his father and his grandfather. However, he is still young and isolated in his power. The various local officials have proposed that Duo Si-tan assist him in ruling. Duo Si-tan is a member of his clan and he has inherited the post of native-official associate administrator of Long-chuan. He resides in Zhe-fang, has a quite powerful military force and his sentiments are loyal ones. Advisers thus wish to appoint him as ruler, but I am afraid that this will later give rise to brow-beating [of Duo An-jing]. We should appoint An-jing as ruler and provide him with headwear and a belt and have him manage the affairs of the pacification commission. Then Si-tan, as the native-official associate administrator, can assist him in administration. In this way, each will have his position and the yi sentiments will be settled. Si-tan has many people but little land. However, beyond the river, there is vacant land such as that at Wan-yao-shu and such places. It should be considered temporarily giving this to him. This would be like the precedent when Fang Ying-zhi looked after Fang Ting-chen in Mang-shi (Alt: Mang-bu). After An-jing has matured, a time should be set for this to be returned. If he realizes achievements, the territory should be carved off and given to him. This measure would not be excessive. Also Nan Dian and Gan-yai should be charged with protecting the appointment, so that Si-tan does not cause problems by attempting to enlarge his territory. The pacification commission seal should be temporarily stored in Teng-yue Subprefecture. After the Imperial orders are issued, or when, as the provincial officials have proposed, An-jing is able to rule by himself, the seal should be given to him. This will prevent the coveting of land and reduce the possibility of troubles. As to Kan Zhong (Alt: Yan Zhong) sojourning for many years in Man-xi (Alt: Wan-xi), this was the result of Si Xian relying on Ava-Burma in his occupation of Man-mo. Their forces were insufficient to oppose Si Xian and our troops only guarded the areas in which they were based. They had no cause to go deep into the area to protect him. As a temporary measure, we should settle him on the state farms outside Meng-mao City, have him farm the empty fields and provide him with seeds. As his troops are fearful of Duo Tai, Duo An-bang and such yi, they will also be of assistance in guarding the city. We should then wait until their strength is sufficient to compete with Man-mo, and then careful efforts can be made to recover it. Further, every year, several hundred jin can be saved on salaries and the troops of Zhen-yuan garrison can be gradually withdrawn. The troops of the Teng-chong garrison who are based in Lu-chuan are in an area where there is much miasmic pestilence and it will be difficult for them to long remain there. Further, when yi and Han people live mixed together, there will always be disturbances. Shan-mu-long is a strategic position and has little miasma. We should transfer these frontier troops there and build a garrison at that place. Internally, it will serve as a screen for Teng-chong and Yong-chang, while externally it will be able to provide relief to Long-chuan. It will stop the disturbances and please the yi. This is an advantageous plan. The three pacification commissions are secluded in a corner. They stretch over thousands of li and their tribes number tens of thousands of people. What sort of force would be required to force them to submit? The way to handle this is to exercise authority over them in a way which gains their allegiance. The assistant regional commanders and commandants need to act like prefectural or county officials. Duo An-min was afraid and he fled. His flight gave rise to these major troubles for our army. They were not induced by the commander (Alt: the Commander Lu Zhong-li) alone. Death would not pay for all his crimes. This should be taken as a warning. The grand coordinator wants, on the basis of the precedent provided by the autumn defence inspections in the border regions, to promote and demote various commanders and officers of the Teng-chong/Yong-chang Circuit in accordance with their achievements and transgressions. This will encourage people to devote their energies to the important duties in the border areas." This was approved.

Shen-zong: juan 482.1a-2a

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 117, page 9067/69

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/wan-li/year-39-month-4-day-3, accessed November 15, 2019