Xuan-de: Year 1, Month 3, Day 3
10 Apr 1426
The Qian-guo Duke Mu Sheng, regional commander and Grand Mentor, was ordered to deploy Dao Ji-han, the native-official magistrate of Ning-yuan Subprefecture, and others, to attack the Ning-yuan Subprefecture bandits. The Rong-chang Earl Chen Zhi, assistant regional commander, and others were ordered to bring to submission the bandits in Xuan-hua and Tai-yuan Prefectures in Jiao-zhi. At this time, the Commissioner-in-chief Chen Jun, who was in charge of the affairs of the Jiao-zhi Regional Military Commission, memorialized: "The bandit leader Zhou Zhuang and others who are based in Xuan-hua and Jia-xing Prefectures in Jiao-zhi, joined with the `red-clothes' bandit Zhang Qing and others from Ning-yuan Subprefecture in Yun-nan, and engaged in robbery and killing of the people and burnt buildings in the various subprefectures and counties. Also, the bandit Huang An, who operates in Gui-hua and other subprefectures and counties under Tai-yuan and other prefectures, assembled a force and engaged in banditry. Further, the Fu-liu County bandit Pan Ke-li is now following the bandit leader Li Li and engaging in plunder. The counties subordinate to Tai-yuan and Xuan-hua Prefectures are all close to Ning-yuan Subprefecture in Yun-nan. The people all wear red clothing with black cloth on the chest (紅衣黑胸). Thus, they are called the `red clothes' bandits. The connivance of the native-official magistrate Dao Ji-han has allowed this plundering. The Imperial army attacked them and the bandits fled deep into the mountain forests. When the Imperial army departed, the bandits again appeared and engaged in plunder. It is requested that troops be sent to attack and eliminate them." This order was thus issued.
Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 16, page 0392/93