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Yong-le: Year 6, Month 7, Day 7

29 Jul 1408

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Imperial orders were issued to the officers and soldiers who had accompanied the Southern expedition. The orders read as follows:

"You have respectfully carried out my orders with the utmost loyalty and efficiency, taken cities and won battles, captured the chief evil-doers and pacified the region. Now, your rewards and promotions are to be arranged. If the authorities have overlooked your achievements or exaggerated your transgressions, the rewards will not be appropriate. If you have personally exaggerated your own achievements and covered up your own transgressions, the rewards will be excessive. You are all allowed to make your own statements and to correct things so that they accord with the ways of justice. The Qing-yuan Earl Wang You had previously shown himself to be of the "Entrusted by Heaven to Pacify Troubles" calibre. His achievements were such that it was appropriate he be enfeoffed as a marquis. However, because of his arrogance, he was deliberately overlooked. Now, he has followed the expedition to Nan-jiao, where he exerted himself greatly, smashing lances and destroying the enemy. His excellent achievements were repeatedly recorded. Now, he is to be enfeoffed as "Military Minister Entrusted by Heaven to Pacify Troubles, Promote Loyalty and Take on Great Tasks, Specially Promoted Master for Glorious Happiness, Pillar of the State, the Qing-yuan Marquis". Headwear and clothing, 150 liang of silver, 4090 ding of paper money and 10 biao-li of variegated silks are to be conferred upon him, and his male descendants are to inherit the title of Marquis for successive generations.

The Assistant Commissioner-in-chief Liu Sheng displayed great loyalty and put forth great efforts, repeatedly realizing outstanding achievements. He pursued the bandits right to the beaches and captured the bandit leader alive. He is now to be enfeoffed as "Military Minister Entrusted by Heaven to Assist in Protection and Take on Great Tasks, Specially Promoted Minister for Glorious Happiness, Pillar of the State, the An-yuan Earl". The same rewards as were conferred upon Wang You are to be conferred upon him, with the exception of one-fifth less silver and his male descendants are to inherit the title of Earl for successive generations.

The Assistant Commissioner-in-chief Zhu Rong fought strongly and defended bravely. Although he realized achievements and merit in his service, on several occasions losses resulted from his negligence. However, the transgressions were slight and his achievements are to be rewarded. He is to be promoted to commissioner-in-Chief of the right in the Left Military Commission and rewarded with 100 liang of silver, 300 ding of paper money and eight biao-li of variegated silks.

The Assistant Commissioner-in-chief Gao Shi-wen, while driving away the enemy, was killed by arrows and stones. He was admirable in his loyalty and sincerity. He is to be especially rewarded and is to be enfeoffed as "Military Officer Entrusted by Heaven to Assist in Protection and to Take on Great Tasks, Specially Promoted Master for Glorious Happiness, Pillar of the State, the Jian-ping Earl". His rewards are to be the same as those conferred upon Liu Sheng, and his male descendants are to inherit the title of Earl for successive generations.

The Assistant Commissioners-in-chief Lu Yi and Huang Zhong firstly violated discipline, resulting in losses. Although they later realized achievements, the achievements were only sufficient to atone for their crimes. Thus, they are not to be rewarded. The Commissioner Cheng Da was sent to follow the expedition after committing a crime. It is considered that his achievements were worthy and that he has redeemed himself. Originally, he would not have been rewarded, but as he was killed in battle, it is now ordered that his male descendants inherit his post. They are to be rewarded with 40 liang of silver, 100 ding of paper money and four biao-li of variegated silks.

The regional commissioners who led the army and the five firearms and mobile corps commanders, a total of 14 persons, including the Regional Commissioner Zhu Guang, achieved merit without transgression and all are to be rewarded with 100 liang of silver, 200 ding of paper money and eight biao-li of variegated silks. Of these, the Vice Commissioners Zhu Guang, Jiang Hao-lin and Tie-mu-er are to be promoted to assistant commissioners -in-chief, while the Assistant Commissioners Wu Wang and Chen Jun are to be promoted to regional commissioners. Zhang Sheng is to be promoted to vice commissioner. The Vice Commanders Liu Sai and Yin-bu-hua are to be promoted to assistant commissioners. The Assistant Guard Commanders Ding Neng, Yang Hong and Ha-ma-ding are to be promoted to guard commanders. The Regional Commissioners and Generals Xu Tai and Zhu Ying died in battle and both are to be posthumously rewarded. Their male descendants are to inherit their positions.

The Vice Commissioner and General Zuo Di, the Assistant Commander and General Wang Shu and the Assistant Commissioner Huang Yi all died of illness. It is ordered that their male descendants inherit their posts. The Commissioner Fang Zheng and others, a total of 15 persons, committed no transgressions, but their achievements were not as great as those of Zhu Guang and the others. They are all to be rewarded with 80 liang of silver, 160 ding of paper money and seven biao-li of variegated silks. The Vice Commissioner Cheng Kuan is to be promoted to assistant commissioner-in-chief. The Assistant Commissioners Fang Zheng, Luo Wen and others, a total of nine persons, are to be promoted to regional commissioners. The Vice Commander Liu Ta-chu is to be promoted to assistant commissioner. The Assistant Commander Zhu Gui is to be promoted to commander. The Vice Commissioner and General Mao Ba-dan was killed in battle and his rewards are to be the same as those given to Xu Tai. The Vice Commissioner Cao Ying and the Assistant Commissioner Cheng Peng both died of illness and are to be rewarded as Zuo Di. Cao Yun and others, a total of six persons, did not commit any transgressions, but their achievements are considered to be less than those of Fang Zhen and the others. Each is to be rewarded with 60 liang of silver, 120 ding of paper money and six biao-li of variegated silks. Of these, the Assistant Commissioners Wu Kai and Ge Sen are to be promoted to vice commissioners. The Assistant Commissioner Xu Xun was shot dead ( ) and the Assistant Commander and General Cao Yun died in battle. Their rewards are to be the same as those given to Mao Ba-dan. The Assistant Commissioner Sun Hong drowned and Wang Ju died of illness. Their rewards are to be the same as those given to Cheng Peng.

The Commissioners Jiang Qing and Shi You did not commit transgressions but their achievements are considered less than those of Cao Yun. Both are to be rewarded with 40 liang of silver, 80 ding of paper money and four biao-li of variegated silks. The Commissioners Wu Kai, Kong Bin, Yu Rang and Liu Cong and the Commander and General Gao Peng were slow in providing assistance at the Rui River Bridge, with the result that the bandits burnt the grain stores. Although recovered from his illness, Kong Bin continued to shirk tasks. As to Yu Rang and Liu Cong, although their achievements were equal to those of Chen Jun, Yu Rang took the wrong route when pursuing the bandits to Ri-nan, which almost resulted in the whole action being spoilt. Liu Cong was timid and vacillating, and while at Kun-mei, he did not accept discipline. Each is to be rewarded with 40 liang of silver, 80 ding of paper money and four biao-li of variegated silks.

The Commissioner Liu Qing, although realizing achievements on three occasions, had previously, while guarding an embankment, been inattentive, and later while guarding the Rui River, withdrew when he encountered the bandits, with the result that the bandits set fire to the grain stores. The Commissioner Cheng Yang realized merit initially in transporting grain and later in capturing bandits, but he did not provide support to Xu Tai, with the result that the latter was killed in battle. All these were serious transgressions. Each is to thus only be rewarded with 30 liang of silver, 60 ding of paper money and three biao-li of variegated silks. The commissioner and general Lu Lin realized achievements on four (Alt: three) occasions. However, in capturing the bandits at Qi-luo Sea-port, he only concerned himself with his desire for wealth, almost resulting in the leader of the bandits being able to escape. He also took it upon himself to destroy two of the false seals. His achievements do not cover his transgressions and thus his rewards are to be the same as those given to Liu Qing.

The Commissioner Zhang Sheng and others, a total of eight persons, only guarded the camps at the passes and did not realize achievements in battle. They are all to be rewarded with 10 (Alt: 15) liang of silver, 60 ding of paper money and three biao-li of variegated silks. Of the persons who were serving in order to realize achievements and thus be re-instated in their posts, the Commissioner Xu Yuan and others, a total of seven persons, achieved merit without transgression. They are to be rewarded at a level just below the highest rewards. The commissioners and concurrent generals and the commissioners who died in battle are, apart from their original rewards, to be given 30 liang of silver, 60 ding of paper money and three biao-li of variegated silks.

Those who died of injuries received are to receive these amounts less one-third, and in sympathy are to receive grain and linen cloth. Of those who first scaled the walls of Duo-bang Pass, it was originally proposed that 19 persons be rewarded and promoted at levels beyond the normal rewards and promotions. The Commissioner Cai Fu is to be promoted to vice commissioner-in-chief and rewarded with 150 liang of silver, 400 ding of paper money and 20 biao-li of variegated silks. The Vice Commander Mao Zhong is to be promoted to vice commissioner and rewarded with 100 liang of silver, 300 ding of paper money and 12 biao-li of variegated silks. The Assistant Commander Tian Zhen is to be promoted to assistant commissioner and rewarded at the same level as Mao Zhong. The Full Battalion Commanders Zhou Zhao-bao and Li Wen are to be promoted to guard commanders and the Battalion Vice Commanders Zhao Liang and Di Cheng are to be promoted to vice commanders. All are to be rewarded with 60 liang of silver, 200 ding of paper money and eight biao-li of variegated silks. The Platoon Commander Yin He and others, a total of four persons, are to be promoted to full battalion commanders and each is to be rewarded with 40 liang of silver, 160 ding of paper money and five biao-li of variegated silks. The Squad Commanders Jiang Xing-er and others, a total of four persons, are to be promoted to battalion vice commanders and each is to be rewarded with 30 liang of silver, 120 ding of paper money and four biao-li of variegated silks.

The soldiers Shen Ban-er and others, a total of four persons, are to be promoted to company commanders and each is to be rewarded with 30 liang of silver, 80 ding of paper money and two biao-li of variegated silks. In addition, all are to have a set of clothing made of ramie-silk interwoven with gold thread, as well as headwear and a belt conferred upon them. As to the other official troops who realized outstanding achievements, the commanders of the leading forces are to be rewarded with 40 liang of silver, 80 ding of paper money and four biao-li of variegated silks. Battalion commanders and guard judges are to be rewarded with 25 liang of silver, 60 ding of paper money and three biao-li of variegated silks. The company commanders and battalion judges and the probationary company-commander chiefs are to be rewarded with 15 liang of silver, 50 ding of paper money and two biao-li of variegated silks. The head police officials, platoon commanders and precinct heads are to be rewarded with 40 ding of paper money, three bolts of thin silk and two bolts of cloth. The squad commanders and precinct deputies are to be rewarded with 30 ding of paper money and four bolts of cloth. The officials of following forces are to be rewarded with five liang of silver, 20 (Alt: 24) ding of paper money and three bolts of cloth.

The head police officials, precinct heads, troop pennant bearers, commandants, housemen, native-troop elephant handlers, military officials, military attendants, supplementary soldiers, reservists, the sons and younger brothers of the Tatar officials and military functionaries are all to be rewarded with 40 ding of paper money and three bolts of cloth.

As to those who realized great achievements: The commanders of the leading forces are to be rewarded with 15 liang of silver, 60 ding of paper money and three biao-li of variegated silks. Battalion commanders and guard judges are to be rewarded with 10 liang of silver, 50 ding of paper money and two biao-li of variegated silks. The company commanders, judges of ceremonial battalions and probationary company-commander chiefs are to be rewarded with eight liang of silver, 40 ding of paper money and one biao-li of variegated silks. The head police officials, platoon commanders and precinct heads are to be rewarded with 30 ding of paper money, two bolts of thin silks and one bolt of cloth. The squad commanders and precinct deputies are to be rewarded with 24 ding of paper money and three bolts of cloth. The officials of following forces are to be rewarded with five liang of silver, 20 ding of paper money and two bolts of cloth. The head police officials, platoon commanders, troop standard bearers, commandants, native-troop elephant handlers, military attendants, supplementary soldiers, reservists, the sons and younger brothers of Tatar officials and military functionaries are to be rewarded with 20 ding of paper money and two bolts of cloth.

As to those who realized achievements of lesser importance: the guard commanders of the leading forces are to be rewarded with 10 liang of of silver, 50 ding of paper money and two biao-li of variegated silks. Battalion commanders and guard judges and the commanders and deputies of ceremonial guards are to be rewarded with eight liang of silver, 40 ding of paper money and one biao-li of variegated silk. Company commanders, judges of ceremonial battalions, and probationary company-commander chiefs are to be rewarded with 30 ding of paper money and two bolts of thin silk. The head police officials, platoon commanders, and precinct heads are all to be rewarded with 24 ding of paper money and three bolts of cloth. The squad commanders and precinct deputies are to be rewarded with 20 ding of paper money and two bolts of cloth. The officials of following forces, the head police officials, the platoon commanders, troop standard-bearers, commandants, housemen, native-troop elephant handlers, military attendants, supplementary soldiers, reservists, the sons and younger brothers of Tatar officials and military functionaries are all to be rewarded with 16 ding of paper money and one bolt of cloth.

As to those officials who were serving in order to realize achievements:

1. Those who realized outstanding achievements; those officials who have already been re-instated in their posts and who were in leading forces are to be rewarded as those who realized great achievements. Those officials who have been re-instated in their posts and were in following forces, those who have not been re-instated in their posts and minor military and civilian officials are to be rewarded as those police officials and so on who realized great achievements.

2. Those who realized great achievements; Those officials who have been re-instated in their posts and were in leading forces are to be rewarded as those who realized achievements of lesser importance. Those who have been re-instated in their posts and were in following forces, those officials who have not been re-instated and other minor military and civilian personnel are to be rewarded as those officials of following forces and who realized achievements of lesser importance.

3. Those who realized achievements of lesser importance; Those officials who have been re-instated in their posts and were in leading forces are to be rewarded as the battalion commanders and guard judges who realized achievements of lesser importance. Those officials who have been re-instated in their posts and were in following forces, those officials who have not been re-instated in their posts and minor military and civilian personnel are to be rewarded with 10 ding of paper money and one bolt of cloth. Those who died in battle are to be additionally rewarded as follows: Commissioners are to receive 20 liang of silver, 50 ding of paper money and two biao-li of variegated silks; battalion commanders and guard judges are to receive 15 liang of silver, 40 ding of paper money and one biao-li of variegated silk; company commanders and battalion judges are to receive 10 liang of silver, 30 ding of paper money and one biao-li of variegated silk; platoon commanders are to receive 20 ding of paper money and three bolts of thin silk; squad commanders are to receive 16 ding of paper money and three bolts of cloth; and soldiers are to receive 12 ding of paper money and two bolts of cloth.

Those who died of wounds are to be additionally rewarded as follows: Commissioners are to receive 15 liang of silver, 40 ding of paper money and two biao-li of variegated silks; battalion commanders and guard judges are to receive 10 liang of silver, 30 ding of paper money and one biao-li of variegated silks; platoon commanders are to receive 18 ding of paper money and two bolts of cloth; and soldiers are to receive 10 ding of paper money and one bolt of cloth. As to those who fell into the hands of the enemy and were executed, their additional rewards are to be the same as those for people who died of wounds.

The rewards for the achievements of the Imperial Army personnel who proceeded on expedition to punish the Li bandits and wipe out the Annam rebels have all been arranged on an even basis. Those who realized outstanding achievements two or more times shall receive, apart from their original rewards, additional rewards as follows: the officials of leading forces will receive an additional five liang of silver, 20 ding of paper money and one biao-li of variegated silks; the head police officials, platoon commanders and precinct heads will receive 12 ding of paper money and three bolts of cloth. The officials of following forces and the platoon and precinct soldiers will receive 10 ding of paper money and two bolts of cloth. The rewards for the Imperial Army personnel who guarded passes and forts and who transported grain will be in accordance with achievements of lesser importance. However, the rewards for commissioners will be as those for great achievements. Those commanders who died in battle, died of wounds or who fell into the hands of the enemy and were executed are to be given linen cloth and rice.

As to the appropriate promotions:

1. Those who realized outstanding achievements are to be promoted as follows; the guard commanders, battalion and company commanders, commanders and deputies of ceremonial guards, guard and battalion judges, the ceremonial battalion commanders and the platoon and squad commanders are all to be promoted two ranks. Precinct heads are to be promoted to probationary company commanders and the precinct deputies are to be promoted to platoon commanders.

2. Those who realized great achievements; The guard commanders, battalion and company commanders, the commanders and deputies of ceremonial guards, guard and battalion judges, the ceremonial battalion commanders and the platoon and squad commanders are all to be promoted one rank. The precinct heads will be substantively appointed as platoon commanders and the precinct deputies will be substantively appointed as squad commanders. As to those officials and commanders who were serving in order to realize achievements; those who have been re-instated in their posts and realized outstanding achievements will, if they are guard commanders, battalion or company commanders, commanders or deputies of ceremonial guards, guard or battalion judges, platoon or squad commanders, all be promoted one grade. All those who have not been re-instated in their posts and who realized outstanding or great achievements are to be re-instated."

Tai-zong: juan 81.2b-6b

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 11, page 1080/88

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/yong-le/year-6-month-7-day-7-0, accessed October 23, 2019