Zheng-tong: Year 3, Month 8, Day 3

23 Aug 1438

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Imperial orders of instruction were issued to Yang Wei-xi-sha, the king of the country of Java. The orders read: "You, king, have repeatedly sent your envoy Ya-lie Ma-hong to come to the capital and offer tribute to the Court. From these actions, your fine desire to respectfully serve the Court has been observed. However, recently, when the envoy Zhan Wei (Alt: Zhan Zheng) was returning home and he arrived at Pu-yang Postal Relay Station in Fu-jian, he drank wine excessively and became intoxicated. He proceeded to act wildly and, seizing a knife, killed several people and then killed himself. How can such evil and violent people be sent as envoys? Thus, I am especially instructing you, king, that in future when you send persons, choose them carefully."

Ying-zong: juan 45.2a

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 24, page 867

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/zheng-tong/year-3-month-8-day-3, accessed January 17, 2021


Dear folks:

I am adopting a Pug Dog, she is very tiny, and both her dam and sire, are alert to strangers, but very sweet, when welcomed by their "Momma"...

You folks are going to think that I' m crazier than the proverbial "out-house mouse"...

Last night, I awoke out of a sound sleep, with a message saying in my tiny mind:
"Name her, 'Jah Jhing"... I couldn't help myself, I went to Google, and found out that I had not only the incorrect spelling, but possibly the wrong pronunciation...

Would you folks be kind enough to help me with not only pronunciation, but an English spelling, and if the name rings a distant bell, a bit of history...

Thank you,


nana@racc200.com ( e-mail address)