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Zheng-tong: Year 5, Month 10, Day 15

9 Nov 1440

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From the beginning of the Xuan-de reign (1426), Huang Kuan and others of Qin Subprefecture in Guang-dong had misled and coerced over 290 households to submit themselves and their land to Annam. Previously, the regional inspecting censor and the officials of the three offices had been ordered to take Imperial orders of soothing and instruction. At this time, the various offices memorialized: "Kuan and so on have not submitted to pacification. We have examined the maps and accounts of the administrative divisions (zhou) and since Ma Yuan inflicted his punishment and brought peace in the Han (221 B.C. - 220 A.D.), the bronze pillar has marked the South-west border and the Fen-mao Range has marked the North-west border. All the territory within has, since the Hong-wu reign (1369-98) belonged to Qin Subprefecture. Now Annam has occupied territory for over 300 li this side of the Fen-mao Range and over 200 li this side of the bronze pillar. If Imperial orders of instruction are sent to the king of Annam, instructing him to return the occupied territory, then the people will return by themselves." The matter was sent to the Auxiliary Ministry of War, which proposed: "We should wait until the country of Annam sends an envoy to offer tribute, and then we can order the king of the country to return the occupied territory. Also, Kuan and so on should be advised that if they are able to come to allegiance and bring their families back, all their crimes will be pardoned. Further, the border defenders should be warned to not allow any surprise attacks which might give rise to border troubles." This was approved.

Ying-zong: juan 72.5a-b

Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 25, page 1397/98

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Preferred form of citation for this entry:

Geoff Wade, translator, Southeast Asia in the Ming Shi-lu: an open access resource, Singapore: Asia Research Institute and the Singapore E-Press, National University of Singapore, http://epress.nus.edu.sg/msl/reign/zheng-tong/year-5-month-10-day-15, accessed November 17, 2019