Hong-wu: Year 29, Month 2, Day 14
23 Mar 1396
The minister who had been sent by Annam on the demise of the former king Chen Shu-ming, advised of the death. As Shu-ming had taken power in the country by killing and usurpation, the Emperor sent the following instructions to the Ministry of Rites: "Since Annam's Chen Shu-ming persecuted his king Chen Ri-jian, resulting in his death, and usurped the throne, no report has been made on the matter. Shu-ming cherished villainy and harboured deceit. He cruelly slew his king and tried to enrich himself. How could he act so immorally? Now Shu-ming has died. If an envoy is sent to offer condolences, we will be mourning a rebellious minister and approving of a bandit's son. If any of the yi in the four directions should hear of this, will they not imitate and exceed his example and carry out wild plots on the basis of this precedent? This is not the way for China to cherish and care for the foreign yi. You, Ministry of Rites, should send a despatch to that country advising of this."
Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 8, page 3547