Hong-zhi: Year 2, Month 10, Day 26
18 Nov 1489
The Ministry of Revenue submitted proposals on various appropriate arrangements: " ...8. In Yun-nan, of the man and yi who have inclined towards culture, there are many with no surname and many with the same personal names. Thus, every time officials are pursuing bandits or arresting criminals or when native officials wrangle to inherit official posts, all sorts of villainy and troubles occur. It is proposed that surnames be conferred upon the various yi, so that there is a basis on which investigations can be carried out. Those who are unwilling to have surnames should be allowed to remain without (不愿者聽)..." The Emperor said: "...All else is approved as proposed."
Zhong-yang Yan-jiu yuan Ming Shi-lu, volume 52, page 0707/09