Treatment Report
Artefacts: Archaeological Objects

Alvin Tee, Objects Conservator, Global Specialized Services Pte Ltd 10

Global Specialised Services

Fine Art & Exhibition Shippers

25 Tagore Lane #02-01A, Singapore Godown, Singapore 787602

Tel. +65 64526123 Fax: +65 64522311

Company Registration No: 200502624E


Treatment Start Date: 4 August 2017

Treatment End Date: 24 January 2018

Venue of treatment: Global Specialised Services Conservation Studio

Client: National University of Singapore, Department of Southeast Asian Studies

For: Professor John Miksic


A. About the Artefact

Name: Archaeological artefacts

Number of parts: various

Description: Iron slags, coins, copper wires etc

Material: Copper alloy, nickel, tin, lead, iron


B. Condition before treatment: Overall rating: Good to fair

  • Surface dust/dirt and soil accretions
  • Fragmented coins and other pieces
  • Corrosions

C. Treatment Images:

C1. Iron Slags:

  • Brush to remove sand and corrosion residues on surface
  • Coated with 20% B72 in acetone
<strong>Plate 1</strong> Iron slags before treatment
Plate 1 Iron slags before treatment
<strong>Plate 2</strong> Iron slags after treatment. Surface cleaned and coated with 20% B72.
Plate 2 Iron slags after treatment. Surface cleaned and coated with 20% B72.

C2. Copper alloys coins:

  • Brush to remove residues on surface
  • Cleaned with 50% ethanol / 50% distilled water solution
  • Degreased with ethanol
  • Coated with microcrystalline wax
  • Fragmented copper coins were coated with 20% B72 in acetone and microcrystalline wax
  • Broken pieces were adhered with 70% B72 in acetone and coated in microcrystalline wax
<strong>Plate 3</strong> Copper coins before treatment. Coins cleaned with brush and degreased with ethanol. Follow by a coating of microcrystalline wax.
Plate 3 Copper coins before treatment. Coins cleaned with brush and degreased with ethanol. Follow by a coating of microcrystalline wax.

The fragmented coin indicated in red box in the image was adhered with 70% B72 and coated microcrystalline wax.

<strong>Plate 4</strong> After treatment
Plate 4 After treatment

C3. Nickel coins:

  • Cleaned with 50% ethanol / 50% distill water solution
  • Degreased with ethanol
<strong>Plate 5</strong> Nickel coin before treatment
Plate 5 Nickel coin before treatment
<strong>Plate 6</strong> Nickel coin after treatment. Cleaned with ethanol.
Plate 6 Nickel coin after treatment. Cleaned with ethanol.

C4. Loose copper/metal items:

  • Brush to remove residues on surface
  • Cleaned with 50% ethanol / 50% distilled water solution. Follow by degreased with ethanol
  • Coated in microcrystalline wax
<strong>Plate 7</strong> Various metal before treatment
Plate 7 Various metal before treatment
<strong>Plate 8</strong> After treatment. Cleaned with soft brush and coated with microcrystalline wax
Plate 8 After treatment. Cleaned with soft brush and coated with microcrystalline wax
<strong>Plate 9</strong> Various metal before treatment
Plate 9 Various metal before treatment
<strong>Plate 10</strong> Iron slags cleaned and coated with 20% B72. Copper items cleaned with ethanol and coated with microcrystalline wax.
Plate 10 Iron slags cleaned and coated with 20% B72. Copper items cleaned with ethanol and coated with microcrystalline wax.

C5. Stones:

  • Cleaned with distilled water
<strong>Plate 11</strong> Stone before treatment
Plate 11 Stone before treatment
<strong>Plate 12</strong> Stone after treatment
Plate 12 Stone after treatment

C6. Tin:

  • Surface cleaned with soft brush
<strong>Plate 13</strong> side A after surface cleaning
Plate 13 side A after surface cleaning
<strong>Plate 14</strong> side B after surface cleaning
Plate 14 side B after surface cleaning